The Meaning of Stepper MotorA stepper motor is a motor that converts electrical pulse signals into corresponding angular displacement or linear displacement. Each time a pulse signal is input, the rotor rotates an angle or moves forward one step, the output angular displacement or linear displacement is proportional to the number of input pulses, and the rotational speed is proportional to the pulse frequency. Therefore, stepper motors are also called pulse motors.
The stepping motor is based on the most basic electromagnet principle. It is a kind of electromagnet that can rotate freely. Its action principle is to generate electromagnetic torque by relying on the change of air-gap permeance.
Its original model was originated between 1830 and 1860. Around 1870, an attempt was made for the purpose of control, and it was applied to the electrode conveying mechanism of the hydrogen arc lamp. This is considered the original stepper motor.
The Use Process of Stepper MotorAt the beginning of the twentieth century, stepper motors were widely used in automatic telephone exchanges. As Western capitalist powers competed for colonies, stepper motors were widely used in stand-alone systems such as ships and planes that lacked AC power.
The invention of transistors in the late 1950s was gradually applied to stepper motors, making digital control easier. After the 1980s, due to the appearance of cheap microcomputers with multi-functions, the control methods of stepper motors are more flexible and diverse.
Differences Between Stepper Motors and Other Control MotorsThe stepping motor receives the digital control signal (electrical pulse signal) and converts it into the corresponding angular displacement or linear displacement. It itself is an executive element that completes the digital mode conversion.
And it can open-loop position control, input a pulse signal to get a specified position increment, such a so-called incremental position control system, compared with the traditional DC control system, its cost is significantly reduced, almost no need for system adjustment.
The angular displacement of the stepping motor is strictly proportional to the number of input pulses, and is synchronized with the pulses in time. Therefore, as long as the number of pulses, the frequency and the phase sequence of the motor windings are controlled, the required rotation angle, speed and direction can be obtained.
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